The Nagel`s carpet seems replete with synthetic dyes,and the Dehati example may even be a modern carpet,as it is so exactly like the Markarian.However the copyist seems to have run out of energy at the field-top,having been unable to imitate the inscription.
A characteristic of these carpets is the frequent use of Boteh motifs,and three examples have a typical Kazak S-Meander border.
The ultimate degeneration can be seen in pieces lacking the Pendants.
At least 11 examples are known,of which the two most prominent were the Herrmann and Battilossi examples.
Less remote are two further examples,ex-Tony Hazeldine,and a piece currently available on Rugrabbit.
As with the prayer rugs,weaker pieces lose their pendants and become simplified medallion carpets.An example from the Ulmke Collection is typical.
There are many Caucasian versions of the medallion-pendant theme,but leaving aside the obvious Persianate models,here are some more of interest:
|18-Hali 44-11-Herbert Ostler|
|20-Christies 13.6.1983-69(later Herrmann)|
Peter Bausback`s mighty Lori Pambak from 1983 cannot be overlooked:
|22-Rugs as Art 4.2.1973-120|
And finally,a piece which is either 18th century or an extraordinary atavism:
The origins of the medallion pendant design are obscure.No one can say when it first emerged,although its origins in book jacket design seem to derive from border illustrations in early Korans. Crystalised models appear in Korans of the Baghdad school,which also influenced contemporary Mamluke artisans.Tooled-leather covers are robust,surviving when pergament or paper have perished.Their shape and convenient size made them ideal blueprints for carpet design. Once thought to be a Safavid invention,they are now known to be much older,appearing on carpets in 15th century miniatures.The design was presumably tried out much earlier,in textiles.If Raby`s 15th century dating for the earliest LMU`s(Large-Medallion-Ushaks)is correct,which is not outlandish considering the veritable age of the Ottoman dynasty,then Medallion-Pendant carpets were certainly produced contemporaneously under the Turkmen rulers of East Anatolia and West Iran.The whole developement could not have by-passed Persia,and is another ground for proposing the 15th century origins of some NW Persian carpets.
A medallion may be depicted with two attached pendants,or with the pendant separated and presented in tandem(i. the Turkmen carpet)
What we see now are fragments of the exploded Timurid Galaxy.
The intimate connection between the art of the carpet and the art of the book.
|26-Bernheimer sale 82|
|30-Cairo 14th century|
|31-Jalayrid 14th Century|
|32-Shirvan 15th century|
|34-Bukhara or Herat,16th Century|
|35-from Oljaitu`s Koran|