A model example once in the Bode collection was destroyed during the war.An unusual treatment is the halved row of octagons
|122-Berlin-700 J 177|
A fragment from the Rhode Island School of Design
The following from the Keir Collection,the richest in Holbein carpets
A fragment from the Church of St,Margaret,Mediasch,Transylvania
A last piece published by Atalay("Ushak Carpets",1976)
B Type Border(-Chainlink)
From the Ballard Collection in the Saint Louis Art Museum,this was exhibited in London for the ICOC show"The Eastern carpet in the Western World"where the cataloguer percipiently noted the absence of red-ground Holbein examples in Western paintings-they are apparently all blue-green.Not difficult to grasp,as there are only 8 red ground examples recorded here,all of which are small sizes.
A green ground example from the MAD in Paris has a spacious quality suggesting serious age
One of the few SPH carpets sold at auction in living memory,the following was purchased in 1992 for $220,00.With the rare "C-Göl" outer guard.See APG Hali 63-140.Later with Battilossi.
|129-Finarte 31 March 1992-Lot 37|
A green ground carpet shown at the 1926 Chicago Exhibtion, then with Julius Böhler
|131-Kiss Heimtex 96|
C1 Type Border ("Haring").
Only three examples are recorded here with the C1 border,of which two are large pieces.The border is more common on Lottos.
From the Church of Mediasch,Transylvania
|132- Ghereh 50-9|
The following was published in the Turkish Handwoven Carpets series,Nr 3,pattern 0238.Not published in the 2007 catalogue of the Carpet Museum in Ankara,so perhaps it is still in the Ethnographic Museum
A last example is from the Barberini Palace in Venice,and features three types of Kufi border-The Timurid,the Haring,and the X-Box
|135-Courtesy of Stefano Ionescu|
D Type Border("X Box") This border is somewhat more common on the counterchange models.
A carpet exhibited by Alberto Boralevi in Perugia in 1996 was once in the Contini-Bonacossi Collection and was optimistically dated late 15th Century.It has a D1 type border with "X-Boxes" still connected.Unsold at Nagels on 7 May 1994(1112)
|136-Boralevi Hali 87(164)|
The legendary Papal chair from the Bernheimer collection is one of four lots once belonging to the Italian dealer Salvadori,now stretched between the V&A and the Keir Collection.Of all the classic SPH carpets it is certainly the most archaic,Turkmen-like,its prosaic border notwithstanding
|138-V&A Hali 6-4-362|
|139-V&A Hali 24-362|
E Border Type("4 Arrows)
The only example of a Holbein with this border,and the rare red ground.From St.Margaret`s Church Mediasch
F Border Type("Kotchanak")
Part of a once very large carpet with two differing borders,in the Textile Museum Washington
|142-TM Denny 5|
Two fragments in Berlin bear the Budded Kufi border and are both very carefully executed.The larger was purchased in 1876,the second in 1879
Now with Tabibnia,formerly Barbieri and Wher Collections,with skillful colour variations and Turkmen-like diagonal flow
A fragment from the Chris Alexander Collection
Another example in the TIEM , Istanbul,is considered by Jon Thompson to be one of the earliest Holbein rugs.Note the well-turned borders
|147-TIEM-Thompson Beattie 62|
A last example with this border from the Keir Collection.
|148-Keir Collection 6|
G Type Border.
A palatial carpet with Mantegna border is now divided between the Bardini Museum in Florence and the Wher Collection,England.The hole in the centre of the Bardini fragment seems to have been used to patch the Keir piece.Apart from its distinguished border,this carpet excels through its use of broken colour in both octagons and quatrefoils.
A fragment in Berlin is also considered by many to be amongst the earliest,with a knotcount of 1:1
H Border Type.The "Timurid" border does not occur in the counterchange group.As demonstrated by Christina Klose,the little "steps" in the diagonal were at one point interlacings.
The Sibiu carpet is one of the most prestigious examples still in Transylvania,published for the first time complete and in colour by Stefano Ionescu in his standard work,"Antique Ottoman Rugs in Transylvania"Now restored.
From the TIEM in Istanbul
|153-TIEM Ertug 1-51|
The Textile Museum piece seems to have been patched in the borders with fragments from a similar rug
A carpet published by Gantzhorn has the "Star Kazak" border
Fragments from Plain Ground examples.
A piece in the Röhsska Museum in Göteborg,ex professor E.Walter,is listed by Ellis a s R-58
|156-Röhsska Museum 375-29|
|159-keir Collection 9|
|160-Keir Collection T3-T4|
One fragment was found nailed to a stool by Ali Reza Tuna
|163-Keir Collection 8-2|
The clearest demonstration of the two types of SPH carpets can be found in Thompson,Jon,Milestones,page 70.It is not always easy to differentiate between the two systems,especially in old poorly focussed black and white pictures.But a simple way is to examine the sides of the field:if here the colour varies between blue(or blue-green) and red,that is a counterchange model.Even in black and white one can observe how the chroma changes.
|164-Milestones,Moshe Tabibnia,page 70|
Type A Border("Chainlink")
A clear example of the counterchange style in very good condition
The Berlin carpet is equally iconic and has been published many times,most recently in the "Turks" catalogue
A piece from the Keir Collection later appeared restored
|168-Keir 14 restored-Hali 134-37|
A fragment discovered by the late Marino Dall `Oglio in the Church at Sion
A further fragment from the Keir Collection
|171-Sothebys 15 December 2000-Lot 60|
The above sold for $36,400(APG Hali 115-144)but did not fare so well at the same venue in 2005(3 June,Lot 17)where it went unsold.
|172-Christies 15 October 1998(218)|
The Alexander fragment(composed of four pieces)sold in 1998 for $21,570(Hali 103-136)
B Type Border("- Chainlink")
Once with Ulrich Schürmann in the Sixties,and later with Bernheimer,this was part of an exhibition reviewed by Michael Franses in Hali 5/4(515).Later acquired by the Textile Gallery.Now John H.Bryan Collection USA(see Hali 172,71)
Offered at Sothebys Olympia in 2002,the following went unsold,but later reappeared with Zia Bozoglu after a massive lifting operation
|174-Sothebys 27 February 2002(39)|
|175-Zia Bozoglu,Ghereh 35|
A carpet once in the Baron von Tucher Collection
|176-700 years-Erdmann- 47|
A carpet in the Müsee des Arts Decoratifs Strasburg was once in the Kunstgewerbemuseum,Berlin,and was reviewed by C.M Suriano in Hali 83
A battered rug in the Lees Williams Collection Philadelphia led C.G Ellis to some interesting conclusions regarding the occurrence of counterchange rugs in Western paintings.He thought this to be the only rug in an American collection with counterchange design,but in fact both Chris Alexander and the Dumas Collection already possessed one.
This appears to be the only known example in Transylvania,From the Church of St.Margaret,Mediasch
With 4 rows
From the Museum of Design in Copenhagen,the following was once in the Wulff Collection(Nr 9 in his catalogue),originally acquired from Bardini
|180-Kunstindustriemuset-Louisiana Revy 59|
The following sold at Christies on 12 October 2000 for $25,555
|181-Christies October 2000-201|
A carpet in the V&A has been constructed from a larger carpet(actually two pieces)and is Nr.R5 and R5A in the catalogue of C.G Ellis
From the Barbieri Collection
A fragmented carpet now in Kuwait
The example from the Dumas Collection,now in the MET New York
A carpet now in the Wolf Collection,illustrated by Walter Denny in the Textile Museum`s latest publication on Turkish carpets
|186-Wolf Collection,Denny 7|
A carpet from the Pisa Collection Milan,now in the Reeves /Dallas Art Museum
A carpet illustrated by Roger Bechirian
D Type Border("X-Box")
The legendary Dirksen rug,auctioned in the thirties and now missing,has elements taken from the Berlin Large Pattern Holbein
Two fragments from the V&A described by Hali as being probably from an SPH
A carpet formerly in East Berlin which graced the cover of Hali 154.In a whimsical moment the weaver changed the border design,perhaps telling us that she-or more likely he-could also weave the "older" style of Kufi.The carpet had a hooked star border sewn on in an earlier photo. Note the C-Göl inner guard.
The following at Lefevre`s 1978 Sale brought $25,000;later with C.Alexander;sold at Christies on 1 May 2003 for $57,360
|194-Lefevre 3 February 1978-7|
D1 Type Borders.Three examples are known in which the X forms are still connected by a single line.
A pleasant example from the Bardini Museum with original sides and kilim ends
A piece published by Hangeldian which has never re-appeared
One piece in Berlin has a non-Kufi border;this is the only classical example with this feature,presumably 17th century.Another piece in Philadelphia has an old variant border,but of that more later.
A number of fragments exist without borders
|198-MET 1984.503 Ettinghausen|
|199-Sothebys 22 September 1993-96|
|200-Lefevre 16 May 1975-6|
There are three carpets with a scaled down Holbein pattern.The first two share a common,"Hooked-Star"border;the third and most beautiful has a much older border.
The following rug,now in the Museum of Applied Arts,Budapest,was purchased in 1908 from a dealer who brought it from Transylvania.With remarkably intact kilim ends.
|204-Budapest Museum catalogue 2|
Advertised by Bertram Frauenknecht in Hali 34,1987,this went unsold at Christies in 2000 against an estimate of $ 12-18,000(12 October 2000,Lot 200)Now Zaleski Collection.
|205-Christies October 2000-Lot 200|
Perhaps belonging to this group is a fragment from the Keir Collection,although the border also occurs at least four times on the Lotto carpets listed here
|206-Keir(Islamic Art) T17a|
G.G Ellis felt the following had been made in Wallachia and dated it the 17th century,but a later date in Anatolia seems more likely.It has the "Edward VI" border from a painting of the Prince,in which however the painter was unable to deal with the stereoscopic quality of the original
|208-National Gallery London|
A last group contains only octagons
|210-Van Hamm 28 October 2011-138|
Bausback`s piece imitates the Kochanak border of the earlier pieces
A fragment with Lawrence Kearney
And another with Bertram Frauenknecht
A carpet published by the TKF in Vienna
Two very similar carpets
|216-Brüggeman & Böhmer 58|
An entire group consists of SPH octagons in a cassette form
|217-Peter Scholten-Hali 56-67|
Last man standing
|218-Sothebys 15 December 1994-184|
No review would be complete without mention of the Berlin Museum`s yellow ground Holbein variant,which follows the design scheme of its Beyshehir ancestor,with its interlaces turned outwards
|219-Riefstahl,Art Bulletin 1931-9|
A complex type of ambiguity which also appears in the corners of the earlier Mamluke fragment in the V & A
|221-V & A(reconstruction)|
|222-V & A closeup|
The "Anatolian"Mamluke fragment is a carpet full of secrets.If as suggested previously,it is a case of industrial piracy,then all is well.However,if it be proven to be earlier than its Anatolian cousins,then rug history needs to be revised.The Kufi border,interlaced octagons and inner ascending chevrons are all features later developed,in one form or another,in Anatolian rugs.
The form occurs again on anothe Mamluk Blazon carpet fragment in the Textile Museum Washington
Returning to the yellow ground Holbein,a simple cut-and-paste of the borders reveals a complete design,not out of place on an Anatolian Kilim
Comparing the two types of interlaced octagons we can see that the first design from the yellow ground Holbein variant is more complex.The star forms at the centre are so embedded that they hold the outer scaffolding together.The second form,found in the SPH carpets,is much simpler with a rosette plonked in the middle,which could be easily varied.The design returns for an encore in a well-known group of 19th Century Bergama carpets,virtually unchanged,as it is indeed very difficult to alter.
|226-From Enderlein 1967,drawing by Uta Tyroller.|
Impressive work, congratulations. Please note that the Barberini Collection (and related rug) is not in Venice, but Rome.ReplyDelete
When referring to the Bardini Museum, you should note that even if the original provenance is the same from the dealer Bartdini, there are nowadays two separate collections: one is in the Museum now called Stefano Bardini, belonging to the Municipality of Florence (20 rugs all exhibited); the other is part of the Bardini legacy acquired by the Italian Government in 1996 and not exhibited. All these carpets where exhibited together in 1999 in Florence during the 9th ICOC and in my catalogue "Oriental Geometries" each piece is correctly indicated as belonging to the Bardini Museum or to the Bardini Estate. Thanks, Alberto
Thank you for compiling this, interesting to see these small-pattern Holbein carpets together for a novice like me, always interested in seeing and learning. . . . . I have taken pictures of some of these carpets!Thank you for clarifying Alberto!ReplyDelete