Friday 3 January 2014

The Holbein Lotto Family,VII:Lotto Fragments and Variants;Postscript.

Lotto Carpets with Armorial designs.

There are number of these carpets,most of which seem to be fakes.The Warsaw and especially the Leipzig fragment,published in 1910,seem to have formed the basis for all later works.The two original(?)fragments are in Anatolian Style,the other pieces,with one exception,are all in Kilim manner.

573-Warsaw-Festschrift P.W Meister 24

574-Martina Limburger Collection,Leipzig.MMK-72

575-Hamburg-Erdmann,Europa 34

576-McMullan-Ionescu 36

The McMullan piece was recently identified as a fake by Stefano Ionescu.McMullan had also acquired a very poor SPH carpet,now officially discredited(MET nr.61.65)

577-McMullan 70

578-Private Collection-Ganzhorn 422

579-Galerie Neiriz

580-Nagels 20-3070

The following in Kilim Style,with a strange outer border guard

581-Tuduc-Ionescu 35

582-Tuduc-Ionescu 37

Assorted Lotto Fragments

583-Iten-Maritz 38-border closeup

584-RB 45-48

585-V&A Hali 24-365

586-Keir Collection 2-T15

587-Keir Collection 2- T8

588-Keir 2-T6

589-Boralevi 2C

590-Sothebys 23 April 1980-77

591-Sothebys 25 April 1979-88

There are a number of unusual colour variations on the Lotto theme.

Blue/green on Red

This unusual carpet was bought at Sothebys in NY for $8,625,presumably by Davide Halevim,after "a fierce battle"(Hali 91(153)He sold it at his sale in 2001 for  28,200 pounds Sterling.Now in a Pennsylvania collection

592-Halevim Sale 117

The following sold at Christies London on 10 April 2008(108)for $83,850,published previously by Chris Alexander,and reviewed in Hali 156-129,where it did not meet with their approval

593-Alexander Collection 217

Two fragments from Alberto Boralevi and the Keir Collection may be from the same carpet

594-Hali 105(156)

595-Keir Collection 2-T7

A carpet at Lempertz realised 15,000 pounds Sterling

596-Lempertz-Hali 142-50

Two carpets mirror the disintegration of the Anatolian Style.The following was sold at Finarte in 1992 for $46,000,and then again at Christies on 12 October 2000 for $85,188(see Hali 63(141);and Hali 114(133)

597-Planner Collection,Hali 89-71

The Bode rug went to Achdjian and then to Robert Müller  in Switzerland

598-von Bode Estate sale 63

One rug bears a raggedleaf-key border in the field

599-Berlin.Kröger 51

Alberto Boralevi`s piece seems to vary the ornamented style

600-A.Boralevi,Sovrani 12

A mysterious carpet from Divrigi

601-Vakflar Catalogue 53

A second carpet from Divrigi,now in the Vakiflar Museum,reads like a giant scrawl

602-Balpinar & Hirsch 52

603-green on red

The Istanbul and McMullan carpets are related in colour and style

604-TIEM-Ghereh 14-33

605-McMullan Collection-74

Another red on blueground carpet has survived in the Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam


An example once with the Textile Gallery features a wide border style which survived(again)into 19th century Melas rugs

606-Textile gallery 2-VI

A strange carpet appeared at Christies which is neither a fake nor early,but some sort of 19th century atavism

607-Christies 16 April 1987(19)

One last Lotto is the only known prayer example.Either a fake,an alteration,or a work of genius

608-Alberto Boralevi,Hali 92-123

The Lotto-Holbein Family survived into the 18th-19th centuries in a jumbled but charming way. The following group of West Anatolian carpets has at times been identified as originating in Dosemalti( SW Anatolia)but this is due to misinformation supplied to and from May Beattie.Carpets with this design are still woven there,but the group was probably transplanted to the area in the late 19th century,and many examples exist.

609-Textile Museum-Denny,Classical Turkish Carpets,front cover

A lattice-göl design reveals influences from both Holbein and Lotto carpets

610-Textile Museum-29

Later pieces  show the evolution of the C Type border

611-Parvizyar,Hali 150(25)

It`s likely the following once had an outer Kufesque border.It brought $9,775(see APG,Hali 72(124)

612-Sothebys 22 September 1993(12)

613-Sothebys 29 April 1981-125

The last four pieces are so similar that they surely originated in the same manufactory.The following has had a long auction career,starting at Lefevre´s in in November 1977(Lot 37,sold for 2300 pounds Sterling)Bertram Frauenknecht advertised it in Hali 35(59)On June 9 1978 it sold for $5000 at Sothebys N.Eight years later it was at Phillips NY,restored, with an estimate of $10-15,000(May 30 1986-Lot 47)It was offered again on 7 March 1990 at Sothebys London against an estimate of 7-10,000 pounds Sterling,and finally sold again on 25 May 2013 at Rippon Boswell`s for 6100 euro.

614-RB 25 May 2013(11)

The Orient Stars example was sold at RB`s sale of 2 October 1999(69)for the sum of $22,045(see Hali 108-121)Herr Kirchheim felt the rug to be 17th century,although Friedrich Spuhler argued for the 19th.The carpet first appeared ar RB`s  sale of 10 November 1990(94)

615-Orient Stars 171
616-Pacific Collections 240

617-Zia Bozoglu Hali 92(149)

618-Hanna Erdmann

When Lessing founded rug studies in 1877,he took many examples from the Holbein-Lotto Family as a guide.This work was continued by Bode,Erdmann and,in our day,John Mills.Without it there would be little or no general historical sequence.The dating of carpets through paintings is fraught with difficulties however,as seen in the debate over Mantegna`s age when he painted  the Madonna and Child ,now dated by some to 1431,at which time the painter would have been twelve years old!The conventional assignment of this work is to 1456,and it is the first appearance of the SPH pattern.An earlier fresco which apparently contains the design is illegible in reproduction.


Some 60 years later in 1516 Sebastiano del Piombo depicted Cardinal Bandinello in a painting which marks the first appearance of a Lotto carpet


At least 100 years earlier Oriental painters had begun to employ carpets of the SPH type in their paintings and continued to do so during Timurid times

621-From a Khvaju Kirmani,1331,British Library

Although very complex patterning of this type occurs frequently,the actual SPH designs are first registered in a photo-realistic way in the West.The eastern paintings are alway highly conventionalised,with a de rigeur Kufi border(often used to demarcate the space between floor and wall)

There seem to be no Asian paintings featuring Lotto carpets,which suddenly appear on the scene in the early 16th century.As the ultimate Lotus-Palmette carpets,they may have been developed by Egyptian masters.Although originating from the SPH concept,they break with the past,which had evolved slowly,and abruptly produce a new artistic phenomena.The restriction to a basic two-colour palette reveals their probable textile origins.Exactly at this time the Ottomans annexed Egypt.

Depictions of such carpets more or less fade out by the end of the 17th century,after a  period of use in Flemish paintings.

Much has been made of the similarities between various design elements in the Holbein carpets and the work of the Salor or "S-Group"Turkmens in Central Asia.The discovery of a group of Coptic textiles with Turreted Göl design only serves to complicates things further.The Salor use a Large Pattern Holbein minor Göl on their chovals

622-Carpet Magic

which can be compared to this


The similarities are clear,and the closeness of the Salor to the Holbein is marginally more pronounced than that of the Holbein to the Coptic roundels.But the overall resemblance remains vague.

On their large trappings the Salor have combined the Quatrefoil medallion of the SPH carpets with their secondary octagon,producing a new compound form of Göl

624-Wiedersperg Collection


Again,clear similarities but many differences as well.The secondary Göl on the Kedjebe trapping could be a version of the interlaced octagon seen on the "Anatolian" Mamluke,and the Berlin yellow-ground rug.One may also not forget the Kochanak border occuring on a very small number of SPH carpets.All in all,five genuine similarities resulting in a "Dede Korkut" situation,so-called after the great Turkish national epos,the first part of which was written in Central Asia.The second,larger part of the Tale takes place-with the same characters-in distant Azerbaijan,where the Turkmen had lived for 250 years,and had forgotten their tribal origins completely.

Few carpets of this type have ventured forth to auction,the majority of them were Lottos in the Kilim style.Top-seller in our files for the SPH carpets(5 items all told)was the Finarte piece sold in  March 1992 for $220,800.

The alltime topseller was the LPH carpet sold at Finarte Semenzato`s on 29 November 2002 for $567,120.

627-Milestones,page 35

Two Lotto carpets brought large sums at auction,the first appeared twice,and both times set a world record


The above was distinguished by its very rare Type C Border,otherwise unknown on Lotto carpets in the Kilim style,and brought $267,565 in April 1999 at Christies;and a second time at the same auction house in April 2004 fetched $346,300(see Hali APG 105(139) and Hali 135(102)


The above broke the auction sound-barrier at Sothebys Islamic Sale on 24 October 2007(375),bringing its fortunate owner $492,785.Said to be in near original condition and with very good colour,it is certainly a step-up from Christies` frenetic offering.How far these carpets had come since the days of the Anatolian Style!


Gerard van Honthorst,Portrait of Frederich V,1634

Selected Reading:

Alexander,Christopher,A foreshadowing of 21st Century Art
Arabeschi,Catalogue,Venice 1991
Bailey,Julia,carpets and Kufesque,2009
Ballard,James 1935
Balpinar & Hirsch-Carpets,Vakiflar Museum Carpets
Batari,Ferenc,Ottoman Turkish Carpets
Bausback,Peter,Antike Orientalische Knüpfkunst,1976
Bayerisches Nationalmuseum-Textile Schätze
Bennett & Franses-The Buccleuch European carpets-Hali66-95
Bensoussan,Pamela-Five Lotto Rugs,Hali 3-4-276
Berinstain,L `art du Tapis
Beselin,Anna,Geknüpfte Kunst
Bichler,Peter,Antike Koptische Textilien,1989
Boralevi,Turkish carpets in Italian Museums,Ghereh 4
Boralevi, Oriental Geometries,1999
Briggs,Amy,Timurid Carpets
Chevalier Brothers Catalogue
Cselenyi,Oriental Rugs from the John Schorscher Collection
Denny,Walter-Iranian Carpets
Denny,Walter Türkmen Rugs and Early Rug Weaving-Hali4-4-329
Denny,Classical Tradition in Anatolian Carpets
Dirik,General,Türk Haliciligi,1938
Dirksen Sale
Eberhart,Leitner,Stanzer-Textil Kunst Feuer
Eiland,Murray III and Junior-Oriental Rugs,2008
Ellis,C.G “A Soumak-Woven Rug in a 15th Century International Style”,Textile Museum Journal Vol.,Nr.2
Ellis-The Lotto Pattern as a Fashion in Carpets-Festschrift für P.W Meister,1974
Ellis,”Small Pattern Holbein Carpets”in Paintings-Hali 3-3-216
Ellis in Holbeinland OCTS I 1985
Ellis,On Holbein and Lotto Rugs,OCTS II 1986
Ellis-Small Pattern Holbein Carpets in Paintings-Hali3-3-1981-216
Ellis-Bistrita carpets in Nürnberg,Hali 74-69
Enderlein-Bode`s Legacy,Hali 69(84)
Enderlein-Ein Kleinasiatischer Teppich Aus Der Zeit Um 1500,in Forschung und Berichte,Nr.9,1967
Erdmann,Kurt Holbein carpets-Lotto Carpets-in:700 Years of Oriental carpets
Erdmann,Kurt-Türkische Teppiche
Erdmann,Europa und der Orientteppich
Ertug,Turkish carpets from the 13th-18th
Eskenazi,The Vakiflar Domes and Squinches carpet,Hali 8
Franses,Michael-Ashtapada Hali 167-80
Franses,Michael & R.Pinner-Turkish Carpets in the Victoria & Albert Museum,Hali 6-4-356
Gallwitz,Karl Ludwig Lotto Arabesken,Weltkunst 13,November 1998,p.2418
Gantzhorn,The Christian Oriental Carpet
Gombos,Karoly,Old Oriental Rugs
Grote-Hasenbalg,Der orientteppich
Hakutsuru Carpet Museum catalogue,available from the Brewery`s website
Hali,3-3 ,Portraits of King Henry VIII
Hali,Bistrita carpets in Nuremberg,Editorial 72(55)
Herrmann,Eberhart , Lotto Arabesken,Weltkunst 69-8-1382
Heron,Ballard Collection,1924
Iten-Maritz,Turkish Carpets
Ionescu-Antique Ottoman rugs in Transylvania
Ionescu-Handbook of Fakes by Tuduc
Ionescu-The Ottoman Rugs of Bistrita
Kertesz-Baldrus,Andrei,Türkische Teppiche in Siebenbürgen
King & Sylvester,1983,The Eastern Carpet in the Western World
Klose,Christine,Die Teppiche in Fontaine Chaalis,Ghereh 30
Klose,Christina, Ein Anatolischer Sternteppich,Weltkunst 56-16-2178
Lanier,Carpets at Williamsburg
Ledacs and Brenner,1963,Ismerjük Meg a Keleti Szönyegeket
Lefevre,Thompson,Turkish Carpets
Lefevre,The Sarre Mamluke,1980
Lessing,Altorientalischer Teppichmuster,1877
Looms of Splendour,Columbus Museum of Art
Louisiana Revy,Volume 27,Nr.3,Art from the world of Islam
Mackie,Louise-A piece of the puzzle,Hali 47,page 16PMills,John-Carpets in Paintings,1983
Mackie.Loiuse,Splendour of Turkish Weaving
Mills,John-Small Pattern Holbein Carpets in Western Paintings,Hali 1-4-326
Mills,John,Three Further Examples,Hali 3-3-217
Mills,John,Lotto Carpets in Western paintings-Hali3-4-278
Mills,John,The Chihil Sutun ParaMamluk Prayer Rug-Hali93-72
Pagnano,Gigi,L `Arte del Tappeto
Pasztor,Emese,Ottoman Turkish Carpets
Pinner-Substrate Designs,Hali 42-23
Pinner & Stanger,Kufic Borders,Hali 1-4
Kiss,Heimtex 96
Pope-Chicago 1926
Preysing,Alte Orient-Teppiche,1970
Reeves Collection Detroit
Riefstahl,Konya rugs
Rietburg Museum,Koptische Textilien
Scheunemann,Brigitte, Tepppiche Im Sogenannten Kleine Holbein Muster,Forschung und Berichte,2 band 1958
Schmutzler,Altorientalischer Teppiche in Siebenbürgen,republished Ionescu
Spuhler,Friedrich,Oriental carpets in the Museum of Islamic Arts,Berlin
Spuhler,Friedrich,Islamic Carpets and Textiles in the Keir Collection
Spuhler,Friedrich,Carpets and Textiles,in:Islamic Art(Keir Collection,Part 2)
Scheunemann,Forschung und Berichte 2-76
Schürmann 1966
Suriano,Carlo Maria,Carpets in the Bargello Museum,Hali 83-80
TKF-Antike Anatolische Teppiche
THC,Vols 1-5
Thompson,Jon,Carpet Magic
Thompson,Jon et al,Carpets and Textiles in the Iranian World
Thompson,Jon,and Tabibnia,Moshe, Milestones
Trimbacher,Peter,An Updated History of Ancient Rugs
Turks-Journey of a thousand years 
Viale,Mercede and Vittorio,Arrazi e Tappeti,Turin,1952
Wilfling,Hans, Die kleinteiligen Holbein Teppiche,in"Antike Orientteppiche"ICOC Catalogue 1986
Wulff,Heinrich,A Collection of Rugs
Ydema,Onno,Carpets and their Datings in Netherlandish Paintings
Zipper,Kurt Unbekannte Orientteppichschätze in Kairo,Heimtex 11/1977,page 192